March 5, 2020


Our motivation lies in the design of our own solutions to the many challenges faced during the development of an autonomous quadcopter platform. Time required to grasp the existing commercial quadcopter systems, could be better spent designing our own solution. Some sensors are more critical with respect to the flight operations than others, but all sensors serves a purpose. Scoreboard Ratings See detailed Gigabyte customer service rankings, employee comments and much more from our sister site. Furthermore, the magnetometer sensor readings are dependent on the roll and pitch angles of the quadcopter. For this reason we needed to include a compass. The average angle is approximately 7 degrees, and thus this system failed to stabilize the quadcopter at 0 degrees.

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Controlling the height above the ground as well, will enable the quadcopter to hover in the air. If a process variable cannot be measured it is common to design an observer that estimates the states by observing the measurable outputs. The calculations can be viewed in detail in [27], and the results are wmga below in table Geodetic longitude and latitude definition and relation to NED 3.

Redundant sensor data can be combined, and knowledge of the system model can be used to obtain even better results. User Manual Page 12 If time execution is critical, a desired trajectory x ty tz t of desired position in time can be generated. This is a system which belongs to the class of underactuated mechanical systems, having fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom. The altitude control problem is unstable; with non-linear dynamics, the force provided by each of the propellers does not share linear dynamics with the thrust, and in addition the force generated depends on the altitude above ground, known as the ground effect.


The data we receive from the range sensor is the time it takes from sending an ultrasonic pulse until the pulse returns, and is measured in microseconds. The longest interval between two stations with We placed both of the houses in the same manner as with the first prototype.

PP guidance illustration in 2D.

Various linearization techniques were explored during our fall project[31], as well as the deriving of the following linearized equations. The Lyapunov redesign method provides the 3.v with robustness to bounded uncertainly in the system dynamics. NET provides very useful internal classes which can make this kind of communication very simple and efficient [6].

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CB guidance illustration in 2D. Using this dmag we ensure that the quadcopter lands with a stable attitude, and in most cases we land so softly that the quadcopter receives no damage. The application will inform the user that there is a problem with the radio link, and likewise inform the user when the connection is stable.

They did however bend easily and made it difficult to perfectly level the IMU.

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The first one is to use a timeout strategy, if we have not received any data in an unreasonable time period we can argue that it is a high probability that the connection is lost, and either way we do not know the current status of the quadcopter. When reading magnetometer data for calibration, avoid moving the magnetometer too close to computers, tables or in general any obstacle that can disturb the measurements.


The arms have a octagonal cross-sectional profile, with an internal reinforcing web. Legs would let the quadcopter take off with a stable attitude, and could reduce the impact when landing. Geodetic longitude and latitude definition and relation to NED.

We want to give a special thanks to Sverre Hendseth for his guidance regarding this report and unceasing belief in our capabilities. The simplest path is the one gnn by straight lines between the way-points. Applying backward difference approximation to Equation 4. In conclusion, if computational power does not pose an issue, the Kalman filter estimate is the best option.

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The research and investment in these machines have been bolstered by the advance of miniaturization, maturing of technologies, more powerful processors and more reliable and cheaper sensors. To reduce the magnitude of these jumps, and smooth out the position estimate, the Kalman filter, as described in Section 4. Several unexpected errors can occur at any time during a flight.

By comparing the calculated tensile stress in table This provides us redundancy as well are more accurate measurements in the sensors working area. Model, design and control of a quadcopter. Magnetometer We will use the same strategy for detecting loss of connection with the magnetometer as with the range sensor, and we have the same possible errors. The integral gain coefficient can increase the precision of the angular position, and hence remove steady state errors.